Wednesday, December 9, 2009


Monday, November 23: After Mo'alla, we were treated to a surprise visit to Tod thanks to the quick thinking and planning of Dr. Moeller. At Tod, there are still some remains of the settlement as well as the temple dedicated to the god Montu. The oldest artifact attested at the site is a pillar with the cartouche of the 5th Dynasty king Userkaf. There are blocks from a Middle Kingdom temple and it was in the foundation of this temple that the "Treasure of Tod" was discovered in 1936. Inside four bronze chests were found a hoard of silver vessels from the time of Amenemhat II showing influence from across the Mediterranean (including the Aegean and Mesopotamia). A barque station inscribed by 18th and 19th Dynasty pharaohs such as Tuthmosis III and Ramses III lies just outside of the main temple, the standing remains of which date mostly to the Ptolemaic Period (with a few sections of decoration extending into the reign of Antonius Pius). The temple has been the subject of several publications documenting the archaeological excavations, texts and scenes:

F. Bisson de la Roque. Tôd (1934 à 1936). FIFAO 17. Cairo: IFAO, 1937.

Jean-Claude Grenier. Tôd: Les inscriptions du temple ptolémaïque et romain. I. La salle hypostyle, textes Nos 1-172. Copiées par É. Drioton, G. Posener, et J. Vandier. FIFAO 18:1. Cairo: IFAO, 1980.

Christophe Thiers. Tôd: Les inscriptions du temple ptolémaïque et romain. II. Textes et scènes nos. 173-329. FIFAO 18:2. Cairo: IFAO, 2003.

Christophe Thiers. Tôd: Les inscriptions du temple ptolémaïque et romain. III. Relevé photographique (J.-Fr. Gout). FIFAO 18:3. Cairo: IFAO, 2003.

Further bibliography on individual scenes and texts from Tod and other Ptolemaic/Roman temples can be found in the following volume:

Christian Leitz (ed.). Kurzbibliographie zu den Ubersetzten Tempeltexten des griechisch-romischen Zeit. Contributions by D. Budde, P. Dils, Chr. Leitz, D. Mendel, D.von Recklinghausen, unter mitarbeit von Lothar Goldbrunner und Bettina Ventker. BdE 136. Cairo: IFAO, 2002. Download online here.


Approaching the Temple of Montu (Photo by Judy)

Processional Way and Temple

Userkaf Pillar

The King offers fields to the sacred bull of Montu

Relief from the lower west wall of the Hall of the Goddesses, showing Meskhenet-Weret and Meskhenet-Menkhet with an amulet symbolizing protection (Photo by Judy)
The text before Meskhenet-Weret states (on the left side of the picture): "Preserving this place at night"

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